europa skin care : natural, organic & science-based skin care

Thursday, November 1, 2018

Hyaluronic Acid

Hyaluronic acid benefits:
  • Elasticity
  • Moisturizing 
Hyaluronic acid, also referred to in skin care as hyaluronate or HA, is a naturally occurring polysaccharide that is found throughout the skin. Hyaluronic acid is glorified for its ability to enhance moisture-retention and skin-hydration. This is due to hyaluronic acid’s ability to hold up to 1000 times its weight in water. For this reason, products with hyaluronic acid (i.e. hyaluronic acid lotion, hyaluronic acid cream, hyaluronic acid liquid care) may serve as effective skin-soothing therapeutics for skin dryness. (1)

Hyaluronic acid molecule

As we age, our levels of hyaluronic acid and collagen decline, thus making our skin more susceptible to aging signs (i.e., fine lines and wrinkles). Topical application of hyaluronic acid has been shown to help decrease water loss from the skin’s surface as well as draw in moisture from the surrounding environment. By significantly increasing the water content in the stratum corneum, various skin factors, such as barrier function and texture, can be improved. 2 This may also enable hyaluronic acid skin care products to play a role in improving skin-elasticity.  Hyaluronic acid can most commonly be found in moisturizing skincare products such as lotions, creams, and serums.

(1) Pavicic, T. et al. Efficacy of cream-based novel formulations of hyaluronic acid of different molecular weights in anti-wrinkle treatment. Journal of drugs in dermatology: JDD 10.9, 990-1000 (2011)
(2) Sundaram, H. et al. Pilot Comparative Study of the Topical Action of a Novel, Crosslinked Resilient Hyaluronic Acid on Skin Hydration and Barrier Function in a Dynamic, Three-Dimensional Human Explant Model. Journal of drugs in dermatology: JDD 15.4, 434-441 (2016)

Thursday, September 27, 2018

What causes hair loss?

Alopecia or hair loss is the medical description of the loss of hair from the head or body, sometimes to the extent of baldness. A loss of 80 to 100 hairs per day is normal.

Female hair loss has more causes and cures than male pattern baldness. That's the good news. Figuring out exactly what is causing female hair loss and how to treat it can get a bit involved.

Dihydrotestosterone (DHT) is a highly active form of testosterone. DHT is synthesized primarily in the prostate gland, testes, hair follicles, and adrenal glands by the enzyme 5α-reductase.

DHT is a substance in the scalp that can shrink the hair follicle until it no longer produces visible hair. Scientists believe DHT and family history are key factors in hair loss.

DHT is the enemy of your hair follicles. It's what causes hair loss... not blocked follicles, not poor circulation. DHT (Dihydrotestosterone) is a derivative of the male hormone testosterone. The hormonal process of testosterone converting to DHT, which then harms hair follicles, happens in both men and women.

Androgenetic Alopecia or common male pattern baldness (MPB) accounts for more than 95% of hair loss in men. By the age of 35, two-thirds of American men will experience some degree of appreciable hair loss. By the age of 50, approximately 85% of men will have significant hair loss.

Mistakenly thought to be a male disease, women actually make up 40% of American hair loss sufferers. Hair loss in women can be absolutely devastating to self image and emotional well being.

Testosterone converts to DHT with the aid of the enzyme Type II 5-alpha reductase, which is held in a hair follicle's oil glands. Scientists now believe that it's not the amount of circulating testosterone that's the problem but the level of DHT binding to receptors in scalp follicles. DHT shrinks hair follicles, making it impossible for healthy hair to survive.

Thyroid Disease - Both an over-active thyroid and an under-active thyroid can cause hair loss. Your physician can diagnosis thyroid disease with laboratory tests. Hair loss associated with thyroid disease can be reversed with proper treatment.

Inadequate Protein in Diet - Some people who go on crash diets that are low in protein, or have severely abnormal eating habits, may develop protein malnutrition. The body will save protein by shifting growing hairs into the resting phase. Massive hair shedding can occur two to three months later. Hair can then be pulled out by the roots fairly easily. This condition can be reversed and prevented by eating the proper amount of protein and, when dieting, maintaining adequate protein intake.

Medications - Some prescription drugs may cause temporary hair shedding. Examples include some of the medicines used for the following: gout, arthritis, depression, heart problems, high blood pressure, or blood thinner. High doses of vitamin A may also cause hair shedding.

Cancer Treatments - Some cancer treatments will cause hair cells to stop dividing. Hairs become thin and break off as they exit the scalp. This occurs one to three weeks after the treatment. Patients can lose up to 90 percent of their scalp hair. The hair will regrow after treatment ends. Patients may want to get wigs before treatment.

Birth Control Pills - Women who lose hair while taking birth control pills usually have an inherited tendency for hair thinning. If hair thinning occurs, a woman can consult her gynecologist about switching to another birth control pill. When a women stops using oral contraceptives, she may notice that her hair begins shedding two or three months later. This may continue for six months when it usually stops. This is similar to hair loss after the birth of a child.

Low Serum Iron - Iron deficiency occasionally produces hair loss. Some people don't have enough iron in their diets or may not fully absorb iron. Women who have heavy menstrual periods may develop iron deficiency. Low iron can be detected by laboratory tests and can be corrected by taking iron pills.

Major Surgery/Chronic Illness - Anyone who has a major operation may notice increased hair shedding within one to three months afterwards. The condition reverses itself within a few months but people who have a severe chronic illness may shed hair indefinitely.

Fungus Infection (Ringworm) of the Scalp - Caused by a fungus infection, ringworm (which has nothing to do with worms) begins with small patches of scaling that can spread and result in broken hair, redness, swelling, and even oozing. This contagious disease is most common in children and oral medication will cure it.

Hair Pulling (Trichotillomania) - Children and sometimes adults will twist or pull their hair, brows or lashes until they come out. In children especially, this is often just a bad habit that gets better when the harmful effects of that habit are explained. Sometimes hair pulling can be a coping response to unpleasant stresses and occasionally is a sign of a serious problem needing the help of a mental health professional.

Other physiological factors might cause hair loss. Recently, a group of Japanese researcher reported a correlation between excessive sebum in the scalp and hair loss. Excessive sebum often accompanying thinning hair is attributed to an enlargement of the sebaceous gland. They believed excessive sebum causes an high level of 5-alpha reductase and pore clogging, thus malnutrition of the hair root. Although this condition could be hereditary, they believe diet is a more prominent cause. The researchers note that Japanese hair was thick and healthy, with a small gland and little scalp oil, until the occidental habit of consuming animal fat crept into their diet after World War II.

This change has led to a significant height increase in the Japanese population, but it has also resulted in more Japanese men losing hair. To some extent, their observation makes sense since problems with greasy hair have often been noted as much as six months to a year prior to when thinning hair becomes noticeable, but this might be just one of the symptoms, not underlying cause, more research is needed. Most doctors agree that if you have a oily scalp with thinning hair, frequent shampooing is advised. shampooing can reduce surface sebum, which contains high levels of testosterone and DHT that may reenter the skin and affect the hair follicle.

*** Products ***

Rogaine, distributed by McNEIL-PPC, Inc., is one of the popular treatment for hair loss in the market for years, and it has slowly gained popularity around the world. From its original inception and approval in the United States by the Food and Drug Authority (FDA), Rogaine is now being sold worldwide by the original patent holder. Rogaine works by reversing the progression of hereditary hair loss.

Users Rating: 8/10
For Use In: Men & Women
Treatment Type: Growth Stimulator
Price: $49.95 (3-Month)

PROCERIN (Most Experts’ Choice)

Procerin is a clinically proven supplement made of herbal essences and helps put the essential nutrients, mineral and vitamins that hair need in order to regrow. With Procerin treatment, very noticeable hair growth is start after 6 months of application. With Procerin, hair loss is prevented without experiencing the sexual dysfunctions associated with medications like Propecia.

Users Rating: 9/10
For Use In: Men Only
Treatment Type: DHT Inhibitor + Growth Stimulator
Price: $49.99 (1-Month) to $219.99 (6-Month)
Money Back Guarantee: 90 Days
Read Procerin Reviews Procerin at Lowest Price

PROVILLUS (Most Consumers’ Choice)

Provillus™ is one of the best hair growth stimulants in the market which has received a high 9 out of 10 ratings from their users. Most customers can see positive results after 6 months of continuing treatment. Provillus™ contains the clinically tested ingredient approved by the FDA (Minoxidil) to help regrow hair. According to the company website, Provillus is FDA-Registered.

Users Rating: 9/10
For Use In: Men & Women
Treatment Type: DHT Inhibitor + Growth Stimulator
Price: $39.95 (1-Month) to $159.95 (6-Month)
Money Back Guarantee: 90 Days
Read Provillus Reviews Provillus at Lowest Price


ProFollica is one of the best hair loss treatments in the market today. It is essential to understand that ProFollica is not a single product but consists of a three tier system. It consists of a shampoo, a gel and a nutritional supplement. All the three products consist of quite a few critical ingredients. It works well in all conditions - starting from young men facing premature hair loss to menopausal women suffering from hair fall.

Users Rating: 9/10
For Use In: Men & Women
Treatment Type: DHT Inhibitor + Growth Stimulator
Price: $79.95 (1-Month) to $399.95 (6-Month)
Money Back Guarantee: 60 Days
Read ProFollica Reviews ProFollica at Lowest Price

Friday, September 21, 2018

=Nestlé To Shed Skin Health Unit

  • Company begins exploring options for division that owns Cetaphil and Proactiv.
  • Nestle Skin Health was formed in 2014 when Nestle bought L’Oreal’s stake in their Galderma dermatology venture.

Looking to sharpen its focus on food, beverage and nutritional health products, Nestlé’s board is exploring strategic options for Nestlé Skin Health.

Nestlé Skin Health has a range of medical and consumer brands through three complementary business units, including Epiduo and Soolantra in prescription, Restylane and Azzalure in aesthetics, Cetaphil and Proactiv in Consumer Care.

According to the company, consumer skin care represents 35% of sales, aesthetics 34% and prescription 31%.

Headquartered in Lausanne, Switzerland, Nestlé Skin Heath employs more than 5,000 people across 40 countries. With R&D capabilities and manufacturing facilities spread across the globe, Nestlé Skin Health had sales of around CHF 2.7 billion in 2017, or approximately $2.8 billion.

“Nestlé Skin Health has made significant progress under its new leadership team over the past two years. The company has developed convincing growth strategies for each of its business units and regained a competitive cost structure. Now is the right time to explore the best ownership structure for Nestlé Skin Health and to consider ways of taking it to the next level,” said Mark Schneider CEO.

The company said the review is expected to be completed by mid-2019.

Sunday, August 5, 2018

10 Causes of Thinning Hair in Women

Thinning hair is more common for men, but it can pack a greater emotional punch for women because hair is so closely tied to beauty and self-esteem. If you notice hair loss over time, it can be a sign to check with your doctor. Here’s why some women might start to experience thinning hair.

1. Mom and Dad: Your genes are the biggest factor. Look at your mom and other female relatives. If your thinning hair is similar to theirs, you probably have hereditary female pattern hair loss, the most common form.

2. Styling: Some chemical treatments such as coloring or straightening formulas harm the scalp, and consistently wearing very tight braids or ponytails can damage follicles.

3. Pregnancy: Some women lose a lot of hair a few months after giving birth as hormones return to normal and delayed shedding occurs at once. This is temporary, and hair generally returns to normal within 12 months.

4. Birth Control: Oral contraceptives can trigger thinning hair for some women by changing hormone levels. Sometimes this hair loss occurs after stopping the pill.

5. Diet: If you’ve been on a crash diet or aren’t getting enough protein and nutrients such as iron, your hair can thin. Losing more than 15 pounds can also cause hair loss that generally reverses when your weight steadies.

6. Trauma: Severe stress can cause hair loss. This includes physical stress like a major illness, surgery or accident, or it can be emotional stress such as a crisis or profound grief. This may last several months but usually reverses.

7. Thyroid Problems: The thyroid gland at the base of your neck produces hormones, and an imbalance can interfere with hair growth. If your thyroid is the culprit, you’ll usually also have other symptoms like dry skin or unusual weight gain.

8. PCOS: A common condition called polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) can affect women of child-bearing age and plays havoc with hormones. Thinning hair can be a symptom along with unusual periods, acne and obesity.

9. Cancer Treatment: Thinning hair is a common side effect of chemotherapy and radiation treatments widely used with cancer. Your hair usually regrows once your treatment is over.

10. Alopecia Areata: This relatively rare disease is caused by the immune system attacking the hair follicles. It causes hair to fall out in round patches. Hair may well regrow but can fall out again.

Sunday, April 29, 2018

MyChelle Perfect C PRO Serum, Professional-Level 25% L-Ascorbic Acid Vitamin C Serum for All Skin Types, 0.5 fl oz

MyChelle Dermaceuticals
Perfect C PRO Serum 25% (0.5 fl oz.)

A professional-level formula with 25% L-Ascorbic Acid - the highest and most active form of Vitamin C.

Key Benefits: 
  • 25% L-Ascorbic Acid (stable): improves skin texture
  • Vitamin C: dulls the damaging effects that free radicals can cause
  • Plant C-Stem and Ubiquinone (CoQ10): protects stressed skin for a more luminous complexion

Penetrates skin
Boosts skin’s natural antioxidant properties
Enhances skin’s natural renewal process
Reduces the appearance of discoloration

UPC:  817291005337

About the product

  • A professional-level Vitamin C formula with 25% L-Ascorbic Acid-the highest and most bioactive form of Vitamin C.
  • Effectively brightens skin, and helps improve skin texture and reduce the visible signs of aging.
  • L-Ascorbic Acid Vitamin C, Plant C-Stem, and Ubiquinone (CoQ10) provide powerful antioxidant/antipollution/anti-aging benefits.
  • Apply one pump to damp skin in the morning after cleansing. If layering serums, use Perfect C PRO Serum first or follow with your favorite moisturizer. Product color will darken over time.
  • Vegan; made without GMO, Gluten, Parabens, Petroleum, Phthalates, Silicones, Sulfates, Urea's, Artificial Fragrances, and Artificial Colors. Cruelty-free.

Perfect C PRO Serum: Brighten & Renew

Professional-level concentrated Vitamin C formula effectively brightens complexion and provides powerful antioxidant/anti-pollution/anti-aging benefits. Formulated with the highest, active level of stable 25% L-Ascorbic Acid to improve skin texture and reduce the visible sights of aging.

L-Ascorbic Acid: C the Difference

Begin each morning with a daily dose of Vitamin C to maintain skin health.
Scientifically Effective
Clinical studies show that L-Ascorbic Acid is an anti-aging superstar and essential for skin health. And it’s the only active form of Vitamin C for skin rejuvenation, photo-aging, and anti-oxidant protection.
Why All Skin Types Need it
L-Ascorbic Acid enhances skin’s natural renewal process, protects skin against environmental damage, reduces irritation, reduces the appearance of dark spots, and helps to improve the look of acne scarring.