europa skin care : natural, organic & science-based skin care

Saturday, July 1, 2017

Beauty Glossary

  • Abrasive – rubs off dead skin cells, evens skin texture
  • Acai  rich in antioxidants, catechins, procyanidins and phenolic acids. It also inhibits lipid peroxidation.
  • Acid – reduces pH level of skin
  • Acne – an inflammation of the skin caused by oil glands blocking pores 
  • AHA (Alpha Hydroxy Acids) – chemicals that simulate an abrasive by sloughing dead skin cells to reveal new, fresh cells underneath
  • Alanine – an amino acid found in many moisturizers 
  • Alcohol – used to dissolve oil, but also as a moisturizer depending on type, e.g. cetearyl alcohol
  • Alkaline – increases pH level of skin
  • Allantoin – an anti-inflammatory antioxidant. It repairs photodamage and reduces skin inflammation following UV radiation.  It protects the skin from irritants 
  • Allergy – reaction to an allergen; usually characterized by redness, itching, or swelling 
  • Aloe Vera – an ingredient derived from the aloe plant, used to moisturize skin
  • Aluminum Stearate – used in lotions to promote a creamy texture
  • Alpha-lipoic acid (ALA) has been referred to as a "universal antioxidant" because it’s soluble in both water and oil, which permits its entrance to all parts of the cell. Due to this quality, it is believed that alpha-lipoic acid can provide the greatest protection against damaging free radicals when compared with other antioxidants. Alpha-lipoic acid diminishes fine lines, gives skin a healthy glow, and boosts levels of other antioxidants, such as vitamin C.
  • Amino Acid – naturally occurs in human protein, used to add moisturizing properties to creams, lotions, and conditioners 
  • Anti-aging – products to help decrease the signs of aging
  • Anti-bacterial – offsets bacteria growth and reproduction
  • Anti-Inflammatories – counteract inflammation, neutralize redness and fortify the circulatory system; arnica, zinc, aloe vera, goldenseal. Cortisone, aspirin, or ibuprofen as examples of anti-inflammatory drugs.
  • Anti-irritant – offsets irritation
  • Anti-microbial – inhibits microbial growth
  • Antioxidants  ingredients that neutralize free radicals before they attack cell membranes. They are found in a majority of anti-aging products because they have shown efficacy in preventing photo-aging and protecting DNA damage. 
  • Ascorbic Acid – also known as vitamin C  – increases collagen production in human skin fibroblasts. Topical application improves the appearance of skin. It is a photoprotectant, and is useful in preventing detrimental effects of UV radiation. 
  • Astaxanthin  A powerful antioxidant proven to be 1000 times more effective than vitamin E.
  • Astringent – used to remove skin surface oils and to temporarily help appearance of pores 
  • Azelaic acid  comes from a form of yeast. It reduces pigmentation by killing the cells that produce abnormal pigment and also reduces inflammation.
  • Benzoic Acid – used in products as a preservative to prevent fungi or bacteria growth 
  • Benzophenone – filters both ultraviolet A and ultraviolet B radiation, used in sunscreens 
  • Benzoyl Peroxide – used to help prevent acne by drying the blemish and reducing acne-causing bacteria 
  • BHT (Butylated Hydroxytoluene) – an antioxidant
  • Biotin  also known as vitamin B7, supports metabolic activities, cell growth and also is crucial for the prevention of hair loss.
  • Bisabolol – derived from chamomile flowers, used as a calming ingredient
  • Blemish – an inflamed pore 
  • Botanical – types of ingredients obtained from plants
  • Butyl Stearate – an ingredient used to condition skin 
  • Butylene Glycol – mild ingredient used as a humectant in moisturizers 
  • Caffeine  although not a polyphenol, is believed to play a key complementary role in boosting the antioxidant performance of other antioxidants such as green tea and cocoa seed extract. 
  • Calcium – an element naturally occurring in bones, teeth, and nails that contributes to hardness 
  • Ceramides  lipid molecules; they naturally protect the skin from moisture loss.
  • Cetearyl Alcohol – an ingredient procured from palm oil and used to thicken formulas and moisturize the skin 
  • Cetyl Alcohol – the main ingredient in cetearyl alcohol
  • Cetyl Palmitate – softens skin and used to thicken a product
  • Chamomile – a natural ingredient used to calm the skin 
  • Citric Acid – acids from citrus fruits used to reduce pH levels in skin
  • Cleanser – product used to remove daily oil and debris 
  • Clinically Tested – product was tested to guarantee it will perform as written 
  • Cocoa seed extract – a source of polyphenols exhibiting strong free radical scavenging capabilities.
  • Coenzyme Q10 (or ubiquinone) – naturally found in human tissue; it is the basis of super-antioxidant idebenone. In-vitro studies showed that CoQ10 suppressed the expression of collagenase following UVA radiation. No side effects have been reported by its topical use. 
  • Coffeeberry  the proprietary name for an antioxidant extracted from the fruit of the Coffee Arabica plant. Stiefel Laboratories has launched coffeeberry-containing products. The company claims that using coffeeberry over a six-week period can result in significant improvement of hyperpigmentation, fine lines, wrinkles and overall appearance. 
  • Collagen A long fiber-like protein found in skin, bones, blood vessels, and connective tissue such as tendons and ligaments.
  • Comedogenic – potential to cause blemishes
  • Conditioner – a product used to restore hair or skin to a normal balance 
  • Curcumin  found in turmeric. It has potent antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and wound healing properties.
  • Depilatory agent – a chemical hair remover
  • Dermabrasion – a procedure in which the outer layer of skin is buffed to improve its texture 
  • Diazolidinyl Urea – used as a preservative 
  • Dihydrotestosterone (DHT) is derived from the male hormone testosterone—it is also the primary cause of hair loss in men and women. When DHT builds up in the hair follicle, it causes a gradual thinning of the hair shaft. Depending on one’s tolerance to this hormone, effects can include minimal hair loss, hair thinning, or balding. Research shows that saw palmetto can block 5-alpha-reductase, an enzyme that converts testosterone to DHT.
  • DHT blocker  a drug that blocks the formation of DHT, or dihydrotestosterone. DHT causes hair loss by restricting blood supply to hair follicles, causing the follicles to eventually die and fall out. The body naturally converts testosterone into DHT, and a DHT blocker helps prevent this process from happening.
  • Dimethicone – a silicone oil that is used to help prevent water evaporation 
  • Dipotassium Glycyrrhizate  An anti-irritant extracted from licorice root helps calm and sooth the skin.
  • Disinfectant – a product that kills pathogenic microorganisms
  • DMAE  (dimethylaminoethanol)  This substance is naturally produced in the brain. DMAE in skin care products shows remarkable effects when applied topically to skin, resulting in the reduction of fine lines and wrinkles.  It also enhances the effects of other antioxidants like alpha lipoic acid and Vitamin C ester.
  • Echinacea – a derivative of the coneflower plant, used in moisturizers
  • Eczema – a skin condition that results in red, blotchy, scaly skin patches on virtually any area of the body 
  • Elasticity – describes the ability of youthful skin to keep its shape
  • Elastin – a protein 
  • Emollient – a combination of fats and oils used to keep moisture in the skin by providing a barrier 
  • Emulsifier – necessary ingredients to keep two ingredients that usually do not mix, i.e., oil and water, from separating 
  • Emulsion – a suspension of two ingredients that do not mix, i.e., oil and water, and remain mixed; held together by a third ingredient called an emulsifier 
  • Enzyme – proteins produced to be catalysts in biochemical reactions
  • Epidermabrasion – a peel used to remove the outer layers of skin
  • Epidermis – surface layer of skin
  • Essential Oil   A concentrated liquid containing volatile aroma compounds from plants.
  • Ester    An organic compound formed by the reaction of an acid with an alcohol.
  • Exfoliant – a product that buffs the outermost layers of skin to reveal fresh new cells 
  • Exfoliate – to remove dead layers of skin to reveal new layers underneath
  • Exfoliation – the process of exfoliating
  • Ferulic acid  derived from plants, is a potent antioxidant and has been shown to provide photoprotection to skin. It has been combined with vitamins C and E and the resulting product has been shown to provide substantial UV protection to the skin. 
  • Firming – helping to create the appearance of younger-looking skin by addressing skin tone and resiliency 
  • Formaldehyde  toxic substance used in hair straightening products
  • Free Radicals – harmful metabolic byproducts that damage cells and tissues throughout the body. The body uses antioxidants to neutralize free radicals. Antioxidants support heart, skin and immune health.
  • Genistein  an isoflavone derived from soybeans. It has a capacity to inhibit UV-induced oxidative DNA damage.
  • Glycation   an abnormal process of non enzymatic joining of sugars to fats and proteins in our body which advances slowly over a lifetime and influences cellular metabolism. The sugars bind to these proteins such as collagen, elastin, and cell membranes.
  • Glycerin – has water binding properties and is popularly used in moisturizers
  • Glycolic Acid – used to exfoliate dead skin cells; helps to remove existing pigmentation and can help to increase the absorption of other active ingredients in your skin lightening regimen
  • Grape seed extract  is sourced from Vitis vinifera. It is rich in proanthocyanidin, a potent antioxidant. It has been shown to be an even stronger scavenger of free radicals than vitamins C and E. The topical application seems to enhance the sun protection factor in humans.
  • Green tea  is extracted from the plant Camellia sinensis. A polyphenolic catechin, Epigallocatechin 3-Gallate (EGCG) is its most abundant active component with antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and anticarcinogenic activity. 
  • Hawthorn  a very potent antioxidant. It is 50 times more potent than vitamin E and 20 times stronger than vitamin C.
  • Human Growth Hormone (hGH)  a protein based poly-peptide hormone. It stimulates growth and cell reproduction and regeneration in humans and other animals. It is a hormone made by your pituitary gland and secreted throughout your lifetime. Research has shown that declining levels of hGH are directly linked to increasing signs of aging.
  • Humectant – an ingredient that helps moisturize the skin 
  • Hydrate – moisturize 
  • Hydroquinone – an ingredient used in "skin-lightening" products
  • Hypoallergenic – any product geared to have minimal to no reaction on skin
  • Idebenone  a synthetic analog of CoQ10. It has been demonstrated to be stronger than CoQ10 and other popular antioxidants. It is said to reduce skin roughness and dryness, as well as reduce fine lines and wrinkles.
  • Irritant – any type of ingredient that causes an undesirable short-term result
  • Kaolin – a type of clay
  • Keratin – the strong protein that forms the outer layer of skin, hair, and nails
  • Kinetin – a plant hormone that promotes cell division; an antioxidant; powerful anti-aging effects in human skin cells. It restores skin’s barrier function and prevents photodamage.
  • Konjac root – 
  • Krill oil – Krill oil is made from a species of krill (Euphausia superba). Three of the most important nutrients in krill oil are: (1) omega-3 fatty acids similar to those of fish oil, (2) omega-3 fatty acids attached (conjugated) to phospholipids, mainly phosphatidylcholine (alternatively referred to as marine lecithin) and (3) astaxanthin, an antioxidant.
  • Lysine, or L-lysine – an amino acid, a building block of proteins. It is an essential amino acid, meaning that it cannot be manufactured by the body and must be obtained through the diet. According to the University of Maryland Medical Center, lysine plays an important role in proper growth. It helps absorb calcium, form collagen in the bones and connective tissue and produce carnitine, a nutrient responsible for converting fatty acids into energy and lowering cholesterol. It’s important in hormone and antibody production.The L in L-lysine stands for the fact that the side chain on the amino acid is "left-handed."
  • Lanolin – extracted from wool, used in moisturizers 
  • Lecithin  originated from the Greek “Lekithos,” referring to egg yolk. Lecithin is a common compound found in cells of all living organisms, its presence is required for proper biological function. It also is an edible and digestible surfactant and emulsifier. Lecithin is used as an emulsifying and stabilizing agent in the food (eg, margarine, chocolate production), pharmaceutical, and cosmetic (eg, creams, lipsticks, conditioners) industries.
  • Lipids – fatty, non-water soluble compounds that are essential for cellular development.
  • Lipoic acid – a unique antioxidant because it is both fat- and water-soluble and is readily available to skin cells, where its highly effective antioxidant properties protect from free radicals.
  • Liposome – a microscopic ball made of lipids to distribute moisture to the skin 
  • Lubricant – smoothes skin, makes surface slick
  • Lycopene  a carotenoid found in red fruits such as tomatoes, chili peppers, watermelon, pink grapefruit, apricot and vegetables, to name a few, and is a powerful antioxidant.
  • Mandelic acid  an aromatic alpha hydroxy acid derived from the hydrolysis of an extract of bitter almonds
  • Melasma  a benign skin condition characterized by excessive pigment deposition in the skin.
  • Microdermabrasion – a treatment that involves a device that gently sloughs the dead skin cells while removing them
  • Mineral – a natural, inorganic substance
  • Mineral Oil – highly refined petroleum
  • Moisturizer – a product that will keep moisture in the skin, or bring moisture to the skin
  • MSM – dietary supplement
  • Mushroom extract  contains a variety of compounds with antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties.
  • Niacinamide (or nicotinamide)   the biologically active amide of vitamin B3. It has powerful antioxidant, anti-inflammatory depigmenting and immunomodulant properties. It improves the texture and tone of the skin and reduces fine lines, wrinkles and hyperpigmentation. It is well tolerated on the skin. 
  • Panadoxine P   a stable form of provitamin B6. It penetrates skin to reduce inflammation, combat oily skin and improve texture.
  • Panthenol – also referred to as Vitamin B5, used in moisturizers
  • Parabens Parabens are the most widely used preservatives in cosmetics and personal care products such as soap, moisturizers, shaving cream and underarm deodorant. Companies use parabens to extend the shelf life of products and prevent growth of bacteria and fungi in, for instance, face cream.
  • Paraffin – a hard wax produced from petroleum
  • Peptides – short chains of amino acids that can be synthesized in an infinite order of different combinations. Fatty ends are added to enhance their penetration into the skin (lipo-peptides).
  • Petrolatum – used in moisturizers to create a barrier to prevent moisture from evaporating 
  • PH – a scale used to determine the skin's balance of acidity and alkalinity
  • Plant extracts  ginko biloba, green tea, Centella asiatica, ginseng, rosemary, juniper and horse chestnut have antioxidant properties. 
  • Pomegranate extract – obtained from the fruit Punica grantum. Its phenolic components have potent antioxidant activity. Topical application of the peel extract was shown to restore catalase, peroxidase and superoxide dismutase enzyme activities in-vivo.
  • Pore – a small opening in skin that allows perspiration to exit the body
  • PPCPolyenylphosphotidyl choline (PPC) is an unsaturated phospholipid, a moisturizing agent.
  • Preservative – keeps product freshness
  • Protein – a natural complex created by an arrangement of amino acids
  • Provitamin B6 
  • Pycnogenol (Pine Bark Extract)  Contains high concentration of bioflavonoid consisting of procyanidins, catechin, taxifolin and fruit acids that help protect elastic fibers, collagen and elastin from breaking down in the skin. Pycnogenol is extracted from the French maritime pine (Pinus pinaster). It contains flavonoids and phenolic compounds acting both as a potent antioxidant and immuno-suppressor. 
  • Quercetin  a flavonoid antioxidant found in various fruits and vegetables. In vitro studies show it inhibited melanoma cell growth. 
  • Resveratrol  a polyphenolic phytoalexin compound that is found in grapes, nuts, fruits and red wine. It sends the body into survival mode, which could potentially increase lifespan and help maintain youthful skin. When topically applied, resveratrol protects against UVB-mediated oxidative stress and skin damage. 
  • Retinol  (vitamin A)  is oxidized into retinaldehyde and then into retinoic acid, the biologically active form of vitamin A. As a precursor to Retin-A, retinol provides a gentle alternative, yet with the same long-term benefits. Two randomized, controlled trials reported significant improvement in fine wrinkles after 12 and 24 weeks of treatment. 
  • Retinyl Palmitate – a type of Vitamin A 
  • Salicylic Acid  a strong ingredient that helps dissolve layers of dead skin, used in acne treatment products 
  • SAM-e
  • Scrub – a cleanser with an added ingredient that exfoliates the dead layer of skin
  • Sebaceous Glands – glands in the skin that make oil to keep skin smooth and soft
  • Sebum – oil produced by sebaceous glands 
  • Selenium 
  • Serum – a concentrated treatment usually used after cleansing
  • Shea Butter – the fat derived from the nut of the shea tree
  • Silicone – ingredients used in moisturizers that create a barrier to help inhibit moisture from evaporating 
  • Sirtuins –  cellular proteins felt to be the prime central regulators of aging. On a cellular level, they promote cell repair and production of protective antioxidants.
  • Soy – liquid originating from the soybean
  • SPF – the acronym for "sun protection factor"; the numbers following the SPF are a subjective guide for increased sun protection. For example, SPF 15 will allow someone to be in the sun approximately 15 times longer than without any sunscreen 
  • Sunscreen – used to protect skin from sun radiation damage 
  • Surfactant – a cleansing ingredient that allows water to rinse the skin clean
  • Silymarin  derived from the milk thistle plant, Silybum marianum. It has strong antioxidant properties. In vivo studies have shown photoprotective effects with topically applied silymarin prior to UV irradiation. This property makes it a suitable additive in sunscreen formulations. 
  • Titanium Dioxide – helps block all types of sun rays
  • Tocopherol – another name for Vitamin E
  • Tocopherol Acetate – a variety of Vitamin E 
  • Toner – used after a facial cleanser, reestablishes normal pH levels of the skin, less drying than astringents 
  • Tretinoic acid  main ingredient in Retin-A; the FDA approved tretinoic acid for the purpose of fighting wrinkles in 1995
  • Triethanolamine – an alkaline ingredient used to balance pH level of a product 
  • Ubiquinone or Co-Enzyme Q10   educes the appearance of wrinkles, age spots, and other signs of aging, such as fine lines, puffy eyes, and dark circles. Studies indicate Co-Q10 is a viable photoprotectant with the ability to penetrate the skin, protect collagen, and reduce wrinkles.
  • Ultraviolet Radiation – sun rays that lead to sun damage
  • Urea – used as a humectant and skin conditioner
  • UVA – damaging rays from the sun, believed to create wrinkles and premature aging 
  • UVB – damaging rays from the sun can cause skin conditions that lead to sunburn and skin cancer
  • Vitamin – an organic substance needed to continue biological processes
  • Vitamin B6 – It is involved in the protein metabolism in the body.  Vitamin B6 also controls the hormonal release of our glands.  A part of vitamin B6, known as Pyridoxal 5-Phosphate (PLP) regulates the function of androgens – or sex hormones – i.e. testosterone and estrogen, linked to hair growth. Testosterone leads to the production of Dihydrotestosterone (DHT). 
  • Vitamin C a vitamin that helps eliminate free radicals
  • Vitamin E (Tocopherol )  a lipid soluble antioxidant that is present in the skin and is also found in various foods. There are eight active isoforms that are grouped into tocopherols and tocotrienols. Its topical use demonstrated improvement in the signs of photoaging. Topical application has been linked with various skin side effects, including contact dermatitis. It is used in a number of sun care and skin care ranges. 
  • Volume – a term to describe hair at its largest shape 
  • Water-soluble vitamin – A vitamin that dissolves in water and can be removed from the body in urine.